first_imgApr 14, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – H5N1 influenza viruses found in chickens seized at Vietnam’s border with China in 2008 show a surprising level of genetic diversity, suggesting that the viruses are evolving rapidly and raising questions about disease surveillance and the effectiveness of prepandemic H5N1 vaccines, according to a team of Vietnamese and US scientists.The findings suggest that the subgroup of viruses identified in the study has been circulating in the region either undetected or unreported for a “considerable amount of time,” the report says. The viruses are in clade 7, a group that has not been found in an outbreak since one in China’s Shanxi province in 2006.Also, given the degree of difference between these clade 7 viruses and those used to make human H5N1 vaccines, “it is unclear whether or not humoral antibodies elicited by current vaccine candidates will have cross-neutralization activity against the new viruses,” says the report, published recently in Virology.The study was conducted by scientists from Vietnam’s National Center for Veterinary Diagnostics in Hanoi and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with the CDC’s Ruben O. Donis as the senior author.Vietnam bans the importation of poultry from H5N1-infected countries. The viruses analyzed in the study came from imported illegal chickens seized at border control stations in Vietnam’s Lang Son province, on the Chinese border. Authorities confiscated 495 chickens at the border stations in the first 5 months of 2008 and tested them for avian flu. Fifteen birds were found infected with H5N1 virus, and two others had an H9N2 virus.The authors extracted RNA from the 15 H5N1 isolates, amplified it, and analyzed the sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes. They found that all 15 HA genes fit within a subgroup of previously identified clade 7 viruses. They determined that 13 of the 15 HA genes fell into two further subgroups, which they labeled A and B.The isolates within groups A and B were very closely related, but the groups differed considerably from each other, with an average divergence of 4.05% in HA nucleotide sequences and 5.69% in amino acid sequences, the report says. The authors also determined that the isolates differed by an average of 3.67% and 5.81% from the most closely related previous clade 7 isolate, which came from a chicken in China’s Shanxi province in 2006.In comparing the viruses with representatives of other H5N1 clades, the investigators found they were most closely related a clade 4 virus (a 2006 isolate from Guiyang province of China) and most distantly related to a clade 1 virus, a 2004 isolate from Vietnam. The respective differences in amino acid sequences were 8.20% and 9.07%.The genetic distance between the HAs of these clade 7 viruses and the isolates used to make prepandemic vaccines raises doubt as to whether antibodies generated by the vaccines would react with the clade 7 viruses, the authors write. They say the viruses used in the vaccines represent clade 1 (from Vietnam, 2004), clade 2.1.3 (Indonesia, 2005), clade 2.2 (Qinghai province, China, 2005), and clade 2.3.4 (Anhui province, China, 2005).The authors used ferret serum samples to test whether antibodies generated against five of the clade 7 viruses would cross-react with viruses from other clades and vice versa. Using hemagglutination inhibition assays, they found that samples (antisera) with antibodies against clades 1 and 2.3.4 did not cross-react with a clade 7 virus, and antisera against that same clade 7 virus did not react with clade 1 and clade 2.3.4 viruses. Also, antisera to the clade 7 virus showed limited cross-reactivity with each of four other clade 7 isolates, suggesting “some, albeit minimal” antigenic similarity among the viruses.The authors write that the identification of two distinct subgroups (groups A and B) of clade 7 viruses “may suggest that these viruses originated from two distinct regions or host populations isolated from each other.”They say the isolates they analyzed were remarkably diverse, given that other studies of H5N1 viruses in a single clade have shown a nucleotide divergence of no more than 1.5%. They also observe, “The high degree of genetic divergence from previously identified clade 7 viruses also indicates that this subgroup of viruses has likely been circulating undetected or unreported for a considerable amount of time as poultry outbreaks caused by clade 7 H5N1 viruses were last reported in Shanxi province, China in 2006.”The findings point up the need for border controls and strong virologic surveillance to detect and prevent the spread of “exotic” H5N1 viruses from country to country, the authors conclude.Dr. Les Sims of Australia’s Asia-Pacific Veterinary Information Services called the study “an important piece of work” that offers another sign of gaps in avian flu surveillance systems in Asia.”Unexplained gaps in the evolution of H5N1 virus HA genes suggest that surveillance systems have not been able to detect all cases of infection,” Sims, who is a consultant to the United National Food and Agriculture Organization, told CIDRAP News by e-mail.Other signs of holes in surveillance efforts include the detection of H5N1 virus in humans before finding it in nearby poultry, finding the virus in intermittent testing in poultry markets, and infected dead poultry washing up on Hong Kong’s beaches, Sims said.Clade 7 viruses have been found in various places in China, including Shanxi, Yunnan, and Hebei provinces, he reported, adding, “One of the recent human cases in Jiangsu was apparently due to a clade 7 virus, based on newspaper reports.””The antigenic variation is not surprising given that clade 7 viruses have been shown to be antigenic variants previously,” Sims said. But the findings from the ferret sera should be tested further with challenge trials in poultry vaccinated with existing vaccines, he added.The difference between a 2006 clade 7 virus found in China—cited in the study as the closest previously identified relative of the viruses the authors analyzed—and existing vaccine antigens “led to the incorporation of a new antigen into some Chinese poultry vaccines,” he said. “These vaccines containing a clade 7 antigen have been used extensively in China.” He added that there have been no reports of vaccine failures in Vietnam resulting from antigenic variants.Sims said the antigenic changes in the clade 7 virus might potentially have been spurred by poultry vaccination efforts. “We need to balance measures to reduce the amount of circulating virus, which vaccination of poultry can do, against the potential ‘harm’ that might occur if antigenic variants emerge,” he stated. “We should expect antigenic variants to emerge and ensure that appropriate measures are in place to detect these at an early stage.”Nguyen T, Davis CT, Stembridge W, et al. Characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus sublineage in poultry seized at ports of entry into Vietnam. Virology 2009 (early online publication) [Abstract]last_img

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first_imgMesut Ozil should start the north London derby, according to Martin Keown (Picture: Getty)Asked how important Ozil is to the Gunners, Keown added: ‘So important.‘Ozil has started just three away league games since the end of September but Arsenal’s results have not improved in his absence.‘Since his last start – the 1-1 draw at Brighton on Boxing Day – Arsenal have lost three of their four away games.‘Arsenal’s top-four hopes hinge on their next two matches against Spurs and Manchester United. Comment Unai Emery prepares for derby against TottenhamTo view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video Play VideoLoaded: 0%0:00Progress: 0%PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 15:28FullscreenUnai Emery prepares for derby against Tottenhamhttps://metro.co.uk/video/unai-emery-prepares-derby-against-tottenham-1873858/This is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window.‘Tottenham are wounded after losing twice in five days. Emery needs to pick Ozil, pick Mkhitaryan and go in for the kill.’Emery, meanwhile, wants his Arsenal team to take the ‘opportunity’ to put pressure on north London rivals Tottenham.He said at his pre-match press conference: ‘There were 10 points difference between us and Spurs two weeks ago. Now it’s four points. It is a big motivation.‘This is a big opportunity for us to play with confidence in our moment, respecting them because they lost two matches but they are still having a very good season.’More: FootballBruno Fernandes responds to Man Utd bust-up rumours with Ole Gunnar SolskjaerNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira moves Metro Sport ReporterFriday 1 Mar 2019 4:43 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link230Shares Arsenal manager Unai Emery (Picture: Getty)Martin Keown has urged Unai Emery to ‘go in for the kill’ and start Mesut Ozil and Henrikh Mkhitaryan in the north London derby against Tottenham.The Gunners travel to Wembley on Saturday knowing a victory will see them move to within one point of Spurs in the Premier League table.Arsenal have won three matches on the bounce and smashed Bournemouth 5-1 at the Emirates on Wednesday evening.Tottenham, meanwhile, have seen their slim Premier League title chances evaporate after losing successive games to Burnley and Chelsea.ADVERTISEMENTMore: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityArsenal hero Keown says Spurs are ‘wounded’ and believes Emery should unleash Ozil and Mkhitaryan on Mauricio Pochettino’s side.AdvertisementAdvertisementHe told the Daily Mail: ‘Arsenal this season are like watching two teams: one that is dominant at home and another that cannot seem to perform on the road.‘If they are going to do the double over their north London rivals tomorrow, they need to pretend that Wembley is the Emirates.‘The return of Mesut Ozil and Henrikh Mkhitaryan has restored some much-needed creativity. Rather than tinker with his tactics, Emery should field both against Tottenham.’center_img Advertisement Martin Keown tells Arsenal boss Unai Emery the two players he must start against Tottenham Advertisementlast_img

first_img Comment Metro Sport ReporterSaturday 9 Mar 2019 6:17 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link1.9kShares Advertisement Tottenham conceded two late goals and crashed to a 2-1 defeat at Southampton (Picture: Getty)Mauricio Pochettino claims it could be a ‘good thing’ Tottenham’s place in the Premier League’s top four is now in extreme jeopardy following Saturday’s capitulation at Southampton.Spurs successfully navigated the second leg of their Champions League last 16 tie against Borussia Dortmund in midweek and looked set for their first Premier League win since early February when Harry Kane scored for the third game running, registering his 200th career goal for club and country.Southampton, who beat Arsenal at St Mary’s and were unlucky to lose at Old Trafford last weekend, drew level through Yann Valery with 14 minutes remaining and further boosted their survival hopes five minutes later through a stunning James Ward-Prowse free-kick.AdvertisementAdvertisementMore: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityA win for Ole Gunnar Solskjaer’s rejuvenated side at the Emirates tomorrow will see them leapfrog Spurs into third, while victory for the Gunners would bring them to within a point of their north London rivals.ADVERTISEMENTChelesa, meanwhile, despite their recent troubles, are just five points behind Pochettino’s men having played two games fewer and host Wolves at Stamford Bridge on Sunday.‘I think it’s good now [that we’re in a battle for the top four] that people are going to realise our real level and stop with the perception,’ said Pochettino, who was serving the first match of a two-game touchline ban. ‘I am a little bit worried about the change from the first half to the second is mental. It’s about arrogance in a bad way. Mauricio Pochettino makes bizarre top four claim as Spurs open the door for Arsenal & Chelseacenter_img Harry Kane scored a landmark 200th goal of his career before Tottenham’s late collapse (Picture: Getty)It shows we need more. We need to increase everything if we want to arrive as one of the best clubs in Europe. There’s been a lot of talk about being in the last step, winning some trophies. We live in the perception and reality. This is the reality. We have two faces.‘It’s important now to know that we need to fight a lot until the end of the season. We are in the Champions League but of course the Champions League can disappear quickly and the Premier League is going to give the access next season to play again if you are in the top four. James Ward-Prowse’s free-kick sealed three vital points for Southampton (Picture: Getty)‘Of course I’m going to say what I said before. I am a little bit worried, this change too much from the first half to the second half is only one reason, it’s mental. It’s about complacency. It’s about arrogance in a bad way. You use the first half like an example, arrogance, playing with intention, focus, concentration, we matched them in everything and we were much better.‘In the second half it was arrogance in a bad way. I think it is a very good example for everyone of how you need to play for 45 minutes and how not to play for 45 minutes. That is of course the responsibility of everyone. I put myself ahead of everyone. I don’t want to blame someone or the team. I want to blame all of us, the club of course.’More: Manchester United FCRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseEx-Man Utd coach blasts Ed Woodward for two key transfer errors Advertisementlast_img

first_imgRawcorp’s new apartment project Bellevue at The Glades, Robina.Marketing Projects SEQ director Kyia Anderson said its location, views and floorplans were attracting a mix of local downsizers and first home buyers. Construction is expected to start in July.“Bellevue is ideally positioned close to Robina Town Centre and the Robina railway station, with easy access to the Pacific Motorway and numerous public and private schools,” she said.“Most apartments are over 110sqm, with just two to five apartments per level. “The majority of apartments face North East overlooking The Glades golf course, with views out towards the skyline from Burleigh right up to Surfers Paradise.” Rawcorp’s new apartment project Bellevue at The Glades, Robina.More from news02:37International architect Desmond Brooks selling luxury beach villa17 hours ago02:37Gold Coast property: Sovereign Islands mega mansion hits market with $16m price tag2 days agoBellevue at Robina will have 58 apartments across two buildings connected at podium level. Residents will have access to a lap pool, gym, sauna and entertainment area.Ms Ferris paid $420,000 for a two-bedroom, two bathroom apartment with large balcony overlooking the golf course. Her older brother quickly followed in her footsteps.“While I can see this will definitely be a great investment opportunity down the track, I am looking forward to living at The Glades,” he said. Siblings Samantha and Chris Ferris have snapped up apartments at Bellevue.SIBLINGS Samantha and Chris Ferris are among the growing number of people who put off flying the coop to save for their first homes.The waiting paid off because the pair have snapped up apartments in Rawcorp’s new luxury development, Bellevue at The Glades. Rawcorp’s new apartment project Bellevue at The Glades, Robina.“Saving for a home deposit can take years and neither of us wanted to get stuck in the rental trap, which would only have made it harder to save,” Ms Ferris said.“We were lucky enough to be able to stay with mum and dad while we both saved enough to buy our own homes. “We were even luckier to discover Bellevue in time to take advantage of the $20,000 First Home Owners grant.” Rawcorp’s new apartment project Bellevue at The Glades, Robina.last_img

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